The Sistine Chapel plays an important role in Italian Renaissance art history and it houses some of the most iconic images of the era. The chapel, located within the Vatican City, is named after Sixtus IV della Rovere and is built on the site of a Medieval hall the "Cappella Magna". It was used for assemblies by the Papal Court.
The building work started in 1475 ended in 1483, and the chapel was inaugurated by the Pope who dedicated it to Our Lady of the Assumption. The chapel is used by the College of Cardinals for the election of a new pope (who is considered to be the successor of St Peter).
The chapel's dimensions (40.23 meters in length, 13.40 meters in width and 20.70 meters in height) are reputed to be copied from Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem which was destroyed in 70 A.D.
When the structure was complete the side walls of the chapel were decorated in 1481 with frescoes by the greatest Italian Renaissance artists. From Florence, Botticelli, Rosselli, Ghirlandaio and Signorelli and Umbrian artists such as Perugino and Pinturicchio.
Painted imitation curtains with the pope’s coat of arms were frescoed on the lower walls above these hung tapestries by Raphael and his followers.
Initially, the ceiling was decorated with gold stars on a blue background
by the artist Umbrian artist, Pier Matteo d’ Amelia.
The Chapel's decoration was completed by Michelangelo and was Commissioned by Pope Julius II. Michelangelo was reluctant to accept the work (he always considered himself to be a sculptor rather than a painter) but he eventually agreed to fresco the vault and the painting took four years to complete 1508-1512.
His famous ceiling frescoes replaced the earlier work by Pier Matteo d’ Amelia.
The two images above are from the series of paintings on the Sistine Chapel walls. Perugino's Moses picture is on the left wall and Rosselli's Sermon on the Mount is on the right wall.
The Ignudi support the corners of the smaller scenes on the chapel ceiling. These four examples highlight Michelangelo's understanding of the human form. (s)
The restoration of the Sistine Chapel was done between 1980 and 1992 and the work on the Last Judgement lasted for four years ending in 1994. The restoration consisted of washing the frescoes with distilled water and a mild solvent removing the layers of dirt that had built up over the years.